Diwrnod y Dywysoges Gwenllian | The Day of Princess Gwenllian
Merch Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf, Tywysog Cymru, a’i wraig Elinor, Arglwyddes Cymru, oedd y Dywysoges Gwenllian neu Gwenllian o Gymru (12 Mehefin, 1282 - 7 Mehefin, 1337), Tywysoges Gwynedd a Chymru. Hi oedd unig ddisgynnydd cyfreithlon Llywelyn o’i briodas ag Elinor (Elen), merch y barwn Simon de Montfort>. Cafodd ei geni yn llys tywysogion Gwynedd yn Aber Garth Celyn, Gwynedd, a bu ei mam farw wrth roi genedigaeth iddi. Ar ôl i Dywysogaeth Cymru syrthio, wedi lladd Llywelyn a dienyddio ei frawd Dafydd, bu erlid gan y Saeson ar ddisgynyddion uniongyrchol olaf Teulu Aberffraw. Roedd Eryri a chalon Gwynedd dan warchae ac am chwe mis neu ragor bu cyfnod dychrynllyd yn hanes y wlad gyda’r milwyr Seisnig yn cael rhwydd hynt i wneud fel y mynnant. Yr oedd y Dywysoges ifanc yn amlwg yn berygl posibl i Goron Lloegr ac o ganlyniad fe’i ducpwyd o Wynedd a’i charcharu am oes ym Mhriordy Sant Gilbert yn Sempringham, Lloegr, a hithau ond yn flwydd a hanner oed. Ac yno y bu tan ei marw yn 1337.
Gwrandewch ar gan Elin Fflur a gafodd ei ysgrifennu i’r Dywysoges Gwenllian yma.
Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (June 1282 – 7 June 1337) was the only child of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Tywysog Cymru (Prince of Wales). Gwenllian was born in the Welsh royal home in Abergwyngregyn near Bangor, Gwynedd. Lady Gwenllian’s mother, Eleanor de Montfort, Lady of Wales, died during childbirth, or shortly after on 19 June 1282. She was descended from dual Royal bloodlines; not only was she the daughter of the Welsh Prince of Wales, but her maternal great grandfather was King John of England. A few months after Gwenllian’s birth, north Wales was encircled by the English army of King Edward I. On 11 December 1282 her father, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was lured into Builth Castle, ostensibly to sign a treaty, but he was captured there and put to death. Gwenllian’s uncle, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, assumed her guardianship, but on 21 June 1283 he was captured with his family at Nanhysglain, a secret hiding place in a bog by Bera Mawr in the uplands of North Wales. Dafydd, severely injured, was taken to Rhuddlan, then moved under guard to Shrewsbury, where he was later executed. Gwenllian and the daughters of her uncle Dafydd ap Gruffudd were all confined for life in remote priories in Lincolnshire, and never allowed freedom. It has been speculated that the girls were taken to Lincolnshire from Gwynedd by sea. Gwenllian was placed in the Gilbertine Priory at Sempringham, where she was held behind high walls until her death fifty-four years later. In committing her to a convent, Edward’s aim was not only to prevent her from marrying and having sons who might lay claim to the Principality of Wales, but also to hide her away, unknown to the outside world.
Listen to the song ‘Tywysoges Goll’ (Lost Princess) by Elin Fflur written for the Princess Gwenllian here.